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solar-initiative-rudolstadt.de» Blog Archive » Fotovoltaikpotential Rudolstadt – Szenario für das Ziel 2020 – 35% Anteil erneuerbare Energien im Strommix

 
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Fotovoltaikpotential Rudolstadt – Szenario für das Ziel 2020 – 35% Anteil erneuerbare Energien im Strommix
Februar 1st, 2012 by admin

Wie könnte ein Anteil von 15% fotovoltaisch erzeugtem Strom im Stadtgebiet und den umliegenden Ortschaften realisiert werden ?

Die Bundesregierung hat sich nun zu einem Ausbauziel 35 % Ökostrom bis zum Jahre 2020 be­kannt. Das bedeutet, dass in den kommenden 9 Jahren eine Zunahme von etwa 15% erreicht wer­den muss (Mitte 2011 20 % Ökostrom) Und es besteht Klarheit darüber, dass dies vor­rangig durch Windkraft und Fotovoltaik, aber auch weiterhin durch moderaten Zubau von Biogas­anlagen erreicht werden kann. Für Wasserkraft stehen in Deutschland kaum Ausbaupotenziale zur Verfügung. Spei­cherkapazitäten müssen im In – und Ausland ausgebaut und stärker genutzt werden.

Die zweite wichtige Säule zur Durchsetzung der Energiewende ist der effizientere Einsatz der Edel­energie Strom bzw. die Einsparung von Strom. In der nachfolgenden Kalkulation ist angenommen worden, dass in diesen kommenden 9 bis 10 Jahren durchschnittlich 10 % weniger Strom in den Haushalten verbraucht wird, vom Start 0 auf 20 % allmählich ansteigend. Der 35 % Ökostromanteil soll folgendermaßen für das Gebiet Rudolstadt aufgeteilt werden (Annahme !): 15 % fotovoltaisch  20 % aus Windkraft, Biogasanlagen, Wasserkraftwerke Preilipp, Uhlstädt usw. In der Kalkulation ist nur die Jahresbilanz berücksichtigt, keineswegs die komplizierte Bereitstellung der benötigten Energie zu jeder Tages-/Jahreszeit.   Rudolstadt wird mit 25.000 Einwohnern angenommen, ein Zuschlag für Gewerbe, Handel, Dienst­leistungsbetriebe und weitere kleinere Unternehmen ist hinzugenommen worden.

NICHT berücksichtigt ist der Stromverbrauch der (wenigen) Rudolstädter Großbetriebe, hier ist schließlich auch Strom aus KWK in Schwarza verfügbar.

30.000.000 kWh / Jahr
10.500 Haushalte mit 2, 4 Mitgliedern   3.000 kWh / Jahr / Haushalt     10 % Strom – Einsparung

4.500.000 kWh  müssten fotovoltaisch erzeugt werden (das sind 15 % des gesamten Bedarfs)
Zwecks Vereinfachung wird angenommen:

50 %  davon auf Dächern erzeugt  (die Dachkapazität Rudolstadt ist aber deutlich größer)
50 %  davon auf geeigneten Freiflächen erzeugt (kann auch weniger werden)

2.250.000 kWh entspr. 2.250 MWh       Strom von Dächern

Einschätzung  

Zahl Dachbeschreibung Dachfläche in m² kWp

Strommenge

    6 Große Hallendächer südlicheSeiten ab 500m² je ca. 60- 80 kW     5.100   480 a  450.000 kWh
die gibt es in Schwarza     2 sehr große Industriedächerz. B. 50 x 24m Flachdach 1.200 m²     2.400   240 a  210.000 kWh
kein Problem,vorhanden   18 mittelgroße Dächer,  schrägoder Flachdächer der Wohnblöcke RUWO usw. Gewerbe, Handwerk 300 m²  je ca. 40 kW     5.200   700 a  630.000 kWh
kein Problem,vorhanden   22 Schrägdächer, etwa 100 m² je 12 bis 15 kW     2.200   290  260.000 kWh
kein Problem,vorhanden 150 Wohnhausdächer für Anlagenzwischen 4 und 10 kW bis 75m²     6.750   900  800.000 kWh
Summen *     Ca. 21.650 m² 2.610 2.290.000 kWh

Anlagen über 30 kW Beteiligung  Einspeisemanagement, Abregelung, etwas Ertragsminderung berücksichtigt

Berücksichtigt sind die unterschiedlichen Stromerträge flache Dächer / Schrägdächer / nicht per fekte südliche Ausrichtung  840 kWh / kW / Jahr bis 930 kWh / kW / Jahr.  Ermittelt wurde die Straßenanzahl in Rudolstadt und Umgebung, ganz kleine Straßen wurden nicht berücksichtigt, ebenso wurde der Altstadtkern nicht mitgezählt: 150 Straßen. Damit würde pro Straße nur 1  Anlage auf einem Hausdach installiert werden müssen, fast lächerlich wenig. Man erkennt das riesige schlummernde Potenzial auch auf Wohnhausdächern!!Einige größere und eine ganze Menge kleine Anlagen sind ja schon in Rudolstadt gebaut worden. Als Beispiele sollen hier nur einige gut sichtbare erwähnt werden: Bürgersolaranlage Theaterlager Kirchhasel, ALDI, Dänisches Bettenlager, EVR, Steinmetz Münch, Biofarbenhandel Schlosskulm, Wohnblock Volkstedt, Holzhandel Schwarza  u. v. a.

2.250.000 kWh entspr. 2.250 MWh       Strom von Freilandanlagen
Einschätzung   Zahl Dachbeschreibung Dachfläche in m² kWp Strommenge
im ehemaligen
CFK Gelände
vorhanden ?
1 Es sollte eine alte Industriefläche sein   Maße etwa  160 x 100 m 16.500  1,65 ha 800 a     730.000 kWh
prinzipiell vor handen 1 Randfläche Gewerbegebiet etwa 150 x 80 m 12.000  1,20 ha 600 a     550.000 kWh
prinzipiell vor handen 2 sonstige Flächen z. B. an
Straßen, im Gewerbegebiet 120 x 50 m
 7.000  0,70 ha 450 a     410.000 kWh
kein Problem 3 sonstige kleinere Flächen
z. B. 50 x 50 m
 7.500  0,70 ha 500 a     460.000 kWh
Summen *     42.500 m² 2.350 2.150.000 kWh

* Anlagen über 30 kW Beteiligung  Einspeisemanagement, Abregelung, etwas Ertragsminderung berücksichtigt

Ist mehr Dachfläche vorhanden, kann der Bedarf an Freifläche zugunsten der Dächer reduziert werden. Die 5 kleineren Anlagen sollten mit platzsparenden kristallinen Modulen aufgebaut sein. Dabei ist wichtig, dass diese Flächen unversiegelt bleiben, Graswuchs und Mahd zugelassen ist und Naturschutzbelange berücksichtigt werden (Trend – Schutzheckenumpflanzung) .
Um einen Vergleich zu haben: der Festplatz Bleichwiese ist etwa 2,4 ha groß. Fläche gesamt: 4,25 ha Durch einige Tricks kann man aber platzsparender bauen (Schätzung 20%) also 3,40 ha.Wenn diese Anlagen auf mehrere Flächen verteilt werden, würden sie gegenüber einer Großanlage weniger im Stadtbild bzw. im Rudolstädter Umland auffallen. Es ist erkennbar, dass der Stromertrag bei den Freilandanlagen gegenüber dem Durchschnitt der Dachanlagen etwas höher ist und das entspricht auch der Realität, da diese Solarflächen auf Süd ausrichtung und optimale Neigung hin montiert werden. 960 kWh / kW / Jahr. Im Raum Rudolstadt können mit einem Spezialmodul und guter Solarfeldausrichtung auf Dächern max. durchaus 1.000 kWh / kW / Jahr erreicht werden. Natürlich lässt sich das Verhältnis zugunsten Dachanlagen verschieben, siehe Hinweis über die Masse der Wohnhäuser. Das bedingt aber gerade im privaten Bereich mehr Engagement der Bürger und auch der Gewerbetreibenden mit eigenen Immobilien in Rudolstadt. Es soll auch erwähnt werden, dass die größeren Anlagen vorteilhaft als Bürgersolar – Beteiligungs anlagen gebaut und betrieben werden können.

Es ist erkennbar, welche Anstrengungen unternommen werden müssen, um dem eingangs genannten Ziel näher zukommen. Die Zahlen klingen zwar „gigantisch“, jedoch muss man bedenken, dass jedes Jahr ja nur 10% beim Zubau realisiert werden müsste.

Quelle:   Solarbüro J. Rheinhardt  Rudolstadt  03672 – 410489 / Stand Januar 2012 – 2. erweiterte Version

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